Subscribe to CERT/CC hírcsatorna
CERT publishes vulnerability advisories called "Vulnerability Notes." Vulnerability Notes include summaries, technical details, remediation information, and lists of affected vendors. Many vulnerability notes are the result of private coordination and disclosure efforts.
Frissítve: 2 óra 21 perc
2022. szeptember 27.

VU#855201: L2 network security controls can be bypassed using VLAN 0 stacking and/or 802.3 headers


Layer-2 (L2) network security controls provided by various devices, such as switches, routers, and operating systems, can be bypassed by stacking Ethernet protocol headers. An attacker can send crafted packets through vulnerable devices to cause Denial-of-service (DoS) or to perform a man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack against a target network.


This vulnerability exists within Ethernet encapsulation protocols that allow for stacking of Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) headers. Network standards such as IEEE 802.1Q-1998 and IEEE 802.3 define a system of tagging Ethernet frames that help isolate networks to provide virtual networking capability. IEEE standard 802.1ad, also known as QinQ, allows for the stacking of these VLAN tags, extending the VLAN capability into multiple network segments. This widely adopted Ethernet feature is also referred to as "provider bridging" and "stacked VLANs". In order to properly isolate and protect these virtual networks, many network devices and operating systems provide an L2 network filtering capability. It is important to note that in modern computing environments , such as Cloud based virtualization and virtual networking, the L2 network capability is extended beyond the local area networks. This can lead to exposure of this vulnerabilities in unintended ways to the larger Internet.

The identified vulnerabilities allow an attacker to bypass the security controls by stacking encapsulating headers. This is done by stacking a combination of one or more VLAN 0 (priority tag) headers and 802.2 LLC/SNAP headers. An attacker can send these crafted network packets and exploit vulnerable devices by bypassing their inspection and filtering capabilities. Some examples of bypassed L2 inspections include, but are not limited to, Dynamic ARP inspection, IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) protection, and IPv6 RA Guard.

CVE-2021-27853 Layer 2 network filtering capabilities such as IPv6 RA guard or ARP inspection can be bypassed using combinations of VLAN 0 headers and LLC/SNAP headers.

CVE-2021-27854 Layer 2 network filtering capabilities such as IPv6 RA guard can be bypassed using combinations of VLAN 0 headers, LLC/SNAP headers in Ethernet to Wifi frame translation and the reverse Wifi to Ethernet.

CVE-2021-27861 Layer 2 network filtering capabilities such as IPv6 RA guard can be bypassed using LLC/SNAP headers with invalid length (and optionally VLAN0 headers).

CVE-2021-27862 Layer 2 network filtering capabilities such as IPv6 RA guard can be bypassed using LLC/SNAP headers with invalid length and Ethernet to Wifi frame conversion (and optionally VLAN0 headers).


An attacker can bypass security controls and deceive a locally connected target host to route traffic to arbitrary destinations. Victim devices experience either a DoS (blackholing traffic) or MitM (observing the unencrypted traffic and maybe breaking encryption).

Solution Apply Updates

Install vendor-provided patches and updates to ensure malicious content is blocked or rejected by the security controls (such as RA Guard), thereby blocking router advertisements or other network configuration related advertisements that originate on host ports.

Inspect and Block Router Advertisements

Utilize the interface security controls on your router or managed switch to perform DHCP snooping, IPv6 RA guard, IP source guard, and ARP/ND inspection. It is also recommended to only allow needed protocol on access ports (ARP/ICMP/IPv4/IPv6), some applications may have additional needs so be prepared to modify the allow list as needed.


Thanks to Etienne Champetier for reporting this vulnerability.

This document was written by Timur Snoke.

2022. augusztus 11.

VU#309662: Signed third party UEFI bootloaders are vulnerable to Secure Boot bypass


A security feature bypass vulnerability exists in signed 3rd party UEFI bootloaders that allows bypass of the UEFI Secure Boot feature. An attacker who successfully exploits this vulnerability can bypass the UEFI Secure Boot feature and execute unsigned code during the boot process.


UEFI firmware is software written by vendors in the UEFI ecosystem to provide capabilities in the early start up phases of a computer. Secure Boot is a UEFI standard that can be enabled and used to verify firmware and to protect a system against malicious code being loaded and executed early in the boot process, prior to the loading of the operating system.

Security researchers at Eclypsium have found three specific UEFI bootloaders that are signed and authenticated by Microsoft to be vulnerable to a security feature bypass vulnerability allowing an attacker to bypass Secure Boot when it is enabled. The vulnerable bootloaders can be tricked to bypass Secure Boot via a custom installer (CVE-2022-34302) or an EFI shell (CVE-2022-34301 and CVE-2022-34303). As a vulnerable bootloader executes unsigned code prior to initialization of the the Operating System's (OS) boot process, it cannot be easily monitored by the OS or common Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) tools.

The following vendor-specific bootloaders were found vulnerable:

  • Inherently vulnerable bootloader to bypass Secure Boot
    • New Horizon Datasys Inc (CVE-2022-34302)
  • UEFI Shell execution to bypass Secure Boot
    • CryptoPro Secure Disk (CVE-2022-34301)
    • Eurosoft (UK) Ltd (CVE-2022-34303)

An attacker can bypass a system's Secure Boot feature at startup and execute arbitrary code before the operating system (OS) loads. Code executed in these early boot phases can provide persistence to an attacker, potentially loading arbitrary kernel extensions that survive both reboot and re-installation of an OS. It may also evade common OS-based and EDR security defenses.

Solution Apply a patch

Apply your vendor-provided security updates that address these vulnerabilities to block vulnerable firmware from bypassing Secure Boot. Microsoft has provided details with their KB5012170 article released on August 9th 2022. Note, these updates can be delivered from your OEM vendor or the OS vendor to install an updated Secure Boot Forbidden Signature Database (DBX) .

Enterprise and Product Developers

As DBX file changes can cause a system to become unstable, Vendors are urged to verify the DBX updates do not cause the machine to be unusable. Enterprises and Cloud Providers that manage large number of computers are also urged to do the required security updates and ensure DBX files are implemented reliably without any risk of boot failure.


Thanks to Mickey Shkatov and Jesse Michael of Eclypsium who researched and reported these vulnerabilities.

This document was written by Brad Runyon & Vijay Sarvepalli.

2022. augusztus 4.

VU#495801: muhttpd versions 1.1.5 and earlier are vulnerable to path traversal


Versions 1.1.5 and earlier of the mu HTTP deamon (muhttpd) are vulnerable to path traversal via crafted HTTP request from an unauthenticated user. This vulnerability can allow unauthenticated users to download arbitrary files and collect private information on the target device.


The muhttpd, hosted at SourceForge as an opensource project, is a lightweight webserver. This software is commonly used in customer premise equipment (CPE), such as home routers and small office routers, to provide device management capability through a web interface. The muhttpd supports the use of CGI scripts that enable remote management of CPE devices.

A path traversal vulnerability in muhttpd (version 1.1.5 and earlier) could allow an unauthenticated attacker to read arbitrary content on the target device, including usernames and passwords, Wireless SSID configurations, ISP connection information, and private keys. If remote management is enabled on a device running vulnerable version of muhttpd, this attack is possible from a remote network. Even in cases with restricted Local Area Network access, a vulnerable version of muhttpd can be accessed using other attack methods such as DNS Rebinding.


An unauthenticated attacker can use crafted HTTP request to download arbitrary files or gather sensitive information from a vulnerable target device. In cases where remote management is enabled on a vulnerable device, a remote unauthenticated attacker can perform these attacks.

Solution Apply Updates

Update to the latest version of firmware/software provided by your vendor; see Vendor Information section for details. Downstream developers of embedded systems should update muhttpd software (to version 1.1.7 or later) from SourceForget git repository.

Disable remote management

Disabling remote management access, which thereby limits access strictly to local area network, can minimize the exposure introduced by the vulnerable software. Use access control to limit remote management if remote management is desired from specific IP network locations. Additional mitigations are described in the security researcher's advisory.


Thanks to Derek Abdine for reporting this vulnerability.

This document was written by Brad Runyon, Vijay Sarvepalli, and Eric Hatleback.

2022. június 21.

VU#142546: SMA Technologies OpCon UNIX agent adds the same SSH key to all installations


SMA Technologies OpCon UNIX agent adds the same SSH key on every installation and subsequent updates. An attacker with access to the private key can gain root access on affected systems.


During OpCon UNIX agent installation and updates, an SSH public key is added to the root account's authorized_keys file. The corresponding private key titled sma_id_rsa is included with the installation files and is not encrypted with a passphrase. Removal of the OpCon software does not remove the entry from the authorized_keys file.


An attacker with access to the private key included with the OpCon UNIX agent installation files can gain SSH access as root on affected systems.

Solution Remove private key

SMA Technologies has provided a tool to address the issue.

Another option is to manually remove the SSH key entry from root's authorized_keys file. The key can be identified by its fingerprints:

SHA256:qbgTVNkLGI5G7erZqDhte63Vpw+9g88jYCxMuh8cLeg MD5:f1:6c:c9:ba:21:66:ce:7c:5a:55:e2:4d:07:72:cc:31

Depending on the shell and operating system there are various ways to generate fingerprints for public keys listed in authorized_keys.


SMA Technologies reports that "We have updated our UNIX agent version 21.2 package to no longer include (and also remove) any existing vulnerability."


Thanks to Nick Holland at Holland Consulting for researching and reporting this vulnerability.

This document was written by Kevin Stephens.